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Did you want two bagels stacked with spreads on spreads on spreads," my mom will ask you when you visit. The correct answer is always "yes" and the correct follow-up question is "This must be your mother's recipe, right? When people observed the new moon, they would notify the Sanhedrin.When the Sanhedrin heard testimony from two independent, reliable eyewitnesses that the new moon occurred on a certain date, they would declare the rosh chodesh (first of the month) and send out messengers to tell people when the month began.
To compensate for this drift, the Jewish calendar uses a 12-month lunar calendar with an extra month occasionally added.
The problem with strictly lunar calendars is that there are approximately 12.4 lunar months in every solar year, so a 12-month lunar calendar is about 11 days shorter than a solar year and a 13-month lunar is about 19 longer than a solar year.
The months drift around the seasons on such a calendar: on a 12-month lunar calendar, the month of Nissan, which is supposed to occur in the Spring, would occur 11 days earlier in the season each year, eventually occurring in the Winter, the Fall, the Summer, and then the Spring again.
The extra month is inserted before the regular month of Adar (known in such years as Adar II, Adar Sheini or Adar Beit).
Note that Adar II is the "real" Adar, the one in which Purim is celebrated, the one in which yahrzeits for Adar are observed, the one in which a 13-year-old born in Adar becomes a Bar Mitzvah. In the fourth century, Hillel II established a fixed calendar based on mathematical and astronomical calculations.