Italia language dating
Many of the phonetic processes that make the attested Italic languages differ from the reconstructed Indo-European language seem to have occurred relatively late in time.The only one that can confidently be placed outside of Italy—that is, before the immigration over the Alps—is the change to in Common Celtic.A more recent common process in Latin and Osco-Umbrian is the use of the full system of five short vowels in initial syllables only; short vowels of noninitial syllables in Latin became less open—e.g., In contrast to the phonology, which shows so many correlations among the Italic languages, there are few definite connections between these tongues in their grammars.A characteristic innovation is the extension of the ablative singular case from ) ‘with skill.’ Many of the morphological features common to Osco-Umbrian, South Picene, and Latin are shared by other Indo-European languages; that is, they are not Italic in a specific sense. Certain lexical fields that reflect the acquisition of the Mediterranean culture show an independent terminology.The most important of these is found on an inscribed flask from Poggio Sommavilla (in Sabine territory), dating from the end of the 7th century The scripts used for writing these languages include the Greek alphabet in Bruttium and Lucania and the Latin alphabet and various derivations of the Etruscan alphabet in the other regions.
These correspondences in religious vocabulary extend to whole phrases, some inherited from Indo-European forms of expression and therefore of very great antiquity: e.g., the Umbrian prayer formula ‘may you keep safe shepherds and livestock’ (in an ancient Roman prayer), and both are cognate with similar expressions in Vedic Sanskrit and Avestan.
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The majority of discoveries come from sanctuaries at Este and Làgole di Calalzo.
The Venetic inscriptions (of which there are about 300, ranging from the 5th to the 1st century Several very early texts cannot be ascribed with certainty to any of the individual languages listed above but show linguistic features of a broadly Osco-Umbrian/South Picene type.